Online Museum

This painting of the Beatrix canal in Eindhoven is made by Frans Manders in the winter of 1988. The Beatrix canal is 8,6 kilometres long and was constructed in the 1930s to connect the Wilhelmina canal with De Hurk industrial estate. Mr. Manders was born in Helmond in 1939 and has followed a course in industrial design in Eindhoven. He enjoys a great reputation as a painter of the Brabant landscape.

 

This money pouch was used by train staff that would sell tickets to passengers. Every station uses its own pouch. On the first of July 1866, the station of Eindhoven was opened. Eindhoven was connected to Boxtel, Venlo and Hasselt through the new railway line.

These train lamps were used as tail lights and hung on the last wagon of the train. The steam train would travel 30 kilometres an hour, this was fast in the time of horses and wagons. The track was used for both goods and train passengers.

Cyclists had to pay bicycle tax from 1924. Every year they had to buy a bicycle plate for 3 guilders. The unemployed could get a free bicycle sign but were not allowed to cycle on Sundays. These bicycle plates could be recognized by the hole in the middle. In 1941 this phenomenon was abolished by the German occupier. 

In the 19th century, the invention of the pneumatic tire was very important, this has made vehicles a lot more comfortable. On the bicycle, pneumatic tires have been used successfully for the first time. In our collection, there is a football made out of old pneumatic tires. Do you know more applications for the use of old bicycle tires? We are curious about your story.

This stamp was used at Eindhoven station. The station made sure Eindhoven would be more accessible and delivered an important contribution to the growth of the city. The station soon became too small due to a lot of freight transport and in 1916 a new station was delivered.

View of the harbour head of the Eindhoven canal with the huge gas holder on which the ‘Persil remains Persil’ advertisement. In 1931 the gas holder was placed. At that time, with 85 meters, it was the highest gas container in the Netherlands and had a capacity of 72,000 m3. At the time, the newspaper spoke enthusiastically about this acquisition of the city. The gasholders were popularly called ‘David’ and ‘Goliath’. In 1932 he was painted with the Persil advertisement. This had to be discussed in the city council. The gas holder was lost during a bombing in 1941.

This is a signal horn that was used by railway staff, such as a railway guard or shunter. There were signals with different meanings that could be given. The conductor, for example, used the signal horn to signal departure.

On 3 December 1947, mayor Kolfschoten gave the starting signal for the construction of the high track with this spade. This high track replaced the Woensel level crossing. There was a lot of train traffic along the level crossing so that the crossing barrier was often closed which caused a lot of traffic jams. In 1953 the high track was opened festively, the level crossing was demolished two years later.

Here you see a solid wooden bicycle tire out of the second half of the 19th century. The wheel consisted of an inner and outer ring that was connected with iron clamps. The tire was only invented in 1888 by Dunlop. In the 90s of the 19th century, the popularity of the bicycle increased rapidly. The distance wasn’t a problem anymore, therefore people could see each other more often.

These stamps are a part of our collection. They are the metal relief stamps with a wooden handgrip and an imprint: EHV, EHV2 and EHV3. They were used on the railways sometime in the last century. Do you know more about these stamps? What exactly were they used for? We are excited to hear your story. Let us know on Facebook.

This train ticket is a reminder of the festive opening of the high track on 28 November 1953. The high track was used a lot and still looks the same. With the construction of the high track, the railway lines were moved a lot and therefor also the station.

These plates were used by the Dutch railways in the first half of the 20th century for the transport of bicycles. The name and address of the owner of the bicycle were on the plate. Do you have any more information about the use of these kinds of plates? It is unknown to us whether the bicycle plates were taken in if the owner picked up the bicycle and what was used to write the data on the plate. Can you tell us?

On this painting by Joop Smits, you can see the market within the background the Catharinakerk and the old town hall in the Rechtestraat. A market was held at that location before Eindhoven received city and market rights in 1232. Every Tuesday, the farmers would travel to the market to sell their surpluses and to stock up on items they couldn’t buy in their village. 

In 1961, Joop Smits (Eindhoven, 1938) graduated from the Art Academy in Eindhoven.

This is a model of the third and current station of Eindhoven that was built in 1956. The story goes that the building was inspired by a radio of Philips. However, the radio didn’t exist yet! In 1960, Philips designed a radio that looks like the station, but it isn’t known if it is a coincident.

In our collection, we found this object. We have reasons to believe that it was used by the staff of the railways. It is around about five cm high. It isn’t known what it was used for. We are very curious about your suggestions about the origin and application of this item.

The architectural firm Van den Broek and Bakema made a new plan for the city centre of Eindhoven. The Ribgebouw, a huge, concrete building on the Vestdijk, is most important in the plan. The Ribgebouw was reconstructed to scale and was exhibited in the Van Abbemuseum. After much protest from citizens, the plans were scrapped in 1974.

The Stratumseind used to be the street that connected Eindhoven to Stratum. In addition to industry, tanneries and cigar factories, here were many small businesses in the street. There were a few cafés, but it wasn’t until the 70’s that the city became one long series of places to go out.

The country was surrounded by tram and railway lines. In 1888, six times per day a horse tram would travel from Geldrop to the Stationsplein, operated by the Tramwegmaatschappij Eindhoven Geldrop. In 1902, these were taken over by Tramwegmaatschappij de Meierij, in 1906 they took the steam tram Eindhoven-Helmond in use. In 1905 the horse tram disappeared.

Artist Paul Panhuysen made this model of his street, the Wilgenroosstraat. In the 70’s he researched how visual arts could help solve problems in a street. With the participation of residents, he made a design for more than the standard ‘pavement, parking lanes and roadway’. Unfortunately, the plan was never implemented. 

Where now lies Bijenkorf and Piazza, used to be a track in 1953. Crossing over was a challenge, you could only cross 15 minutes per hour. A pedestrian bridge was built in 1923, but this solution did not work well enough for countless pedestrians and cyclists that had to cross over during rush hour. The pedestrian bridge was therefore mockingly called the ‘’crossing of the sighs’’. 

The artist Johannus Nicolaas was born in Amsterdam in 1885. He lived and worked from 1934 until 1943 in Eindhoven.

Here you see a so-called acetylene lamp, also called a carbide lamp. Such a lamp was widely used between 1900 and 1945 on vehicles (carts, cars and especially bicycles). Especially in the countryside, the carbide lamp was very important. Together with the lighting of the bicycle, social isolation was lifted. After 1945 the carbide lamp was almost completely replaced by electric lighting. 

This is the flag of the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (N.S.B.). The N.S.B. was a Dutch political party similar to the party of Hitler and was the only permitted party. In 1942 the Dutch mayor Anton Verdijk got fired and replaced by an N.S.B. party member.

In the winter of 1944-1945, there were serious food shortages in the occupied parts of the Netherlands. In the spring of 1945, the allies distributed food packages and cans with meat, flour and sugar which had been dropped from aeroplanes. This ashtray was made around 1945 from one of those cans which is a reminder of the hardships.

The national socialist organisation, Winterhulp Nederland was started in 1940 to give aid to citizens in need. Their funds mainly were from collections. During the war the collectors wore the N.S.B. uniform more and more often which resulted in a reduction of funds.

The air protection service would prepare citizens about what to do when an air attack would happen and they would also administer first aid after an air attack. The air protection service had departments in every city district and villages. With every 200-300 families was a block team led by a block leader.

The Philips factories were used by the German army during the Second World War. The British air force bombed the factories a day after the Dutch holiday ‘Sinterklaas’ on 6th of December 1942. They did this to make an end to the war industry. The factories were badly damaged, but the inner city was damaged in the process as well. The molten cutlery was from a burnt down building on the Demer.

During the First World War, Eindhoven remained neutral, but they were able to hear the roar of cannons from Belgium. A huge group of Belgian fugitives escaped to the Netherlands, especially after the German army seized Antwerp. Eindhoven was very hospitable towards the Belgian refugees, so they gifted a remembrance stone with the arms of the Netherlands, Belgium and Eindhoven as a ‘thank you’. The stone has been on display in the Catharinakerk since 2014.

This is a Dutch helmet from the Second World War. Usually, the helmet has a bronze coat of arms emblem, but this helmet doesn’t show any sign of it. The helmet has a slot where you could attach a neck strap which shows that this helmet has been used for a different purpose, for example, a fireman helmet or for air protection purposes.

This plate was made to commemorate the liberation of Eindhoven on 18th of September 1944. The operation began on 17th of September 1944 with a huge bombing at the airport and on 18th of September, the American soldiers arrived in the centre of the city. The five-pointed star as seen on the plate symbolises the American army. Also, there are three American and three English flags on the plate and the St. Catharina church with the Eindhoven coat of arms.

In 1939 the ‘Lucht Beschermingsdienst’ (Air Force Protection Service) was established. Amongst other tasks the LBD-members had to inform the public of air raids and also to offer first-aid after an air attack. Members of the resistance often were a part of the LBD, because the LBD-members were allowed to walk around the streets after sundown meanwhile regular civilians couldn’t. For every 200-300 families there was a block team led by a block leader. This arm shield was worn as identification.

During the arrival of the allies on the 18th of September 1944, thousands of women wore colourful patchwork-skirts made out of different fabrics. These patches have a special meaning to them, because for example they belonged to clothes from family members who had passed away during the war. At the hem of the dress there were two stamps of Eindhoven and the date embroidered of the liberation of the Netherlands. 

This pennant was made for the liberation festival in 1983 to commemorate the liberation of Eindhoven. Eindhoven is the only city in the Netherlands that organises an own event of this kind. This includes historical, cultural and sporting events connected with freedom. There is an annual torchlight procession through the city, ending at the freedom fire on the Stadhuisplein which would be lit and then the lights would be turned on of the official Light Route.

This plate originates from the men’s section of the Dutch Labour Service. From 1942 onwards the soldiers of the Dutch army were obligated to work in the construction service. The men had to sleep in camps and had do agricultural and drainage work. The logo depicts a spade and ears of corn.

This is a car shield of the ‘Politie Opsporingsdienst’ (Political Investigation Service). The members' of the POD were often former members of the resistance. After the war, they had the task to track down NSB-members, Dutch SS-members and people that betrayed people in hiding and members of the resistance. They would be arrested and locked up in the same prisons as the German occupiers in waiting for their prosecution.

This is an ashtray from 1943, made from a grenade sleeve of a British 25-pounder. These grenade sleeves but also preserving cans, were transformed into a variety of different objects, for example a vase, box or an ashtray. These objects became a reminder of the war.

During the Second World War, everything was being rationed, including which gas and electric. Candles and carbide still gave a lot of light, such as a carbide table lamp. The inscription of this lamp says that the lamps burning time lasts for 4 hours and has the light power of 20 candles.

During the war foods and goods were scarce and had to be rationed, or ‘op de bon’ as the Dutch would say. The population had to use coupons (and money!) to buy a few products at a certain time at certain stores.

The Dutch resistance during the Second World War was very dispersed. That is why Queen Wilhelmina ordered a merger of the ‘Ordedienst’ (‘OD’) (Order Service), ‘Landelijke Knokploegen’ (‘LKP’) (National Fight Team) and ‘Raad van Verzet’ (‘RVV’) (Council of Resistance). The ‘Nederlandse Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten’ (‘NBS’) (The Dutch Domestic Forces) was established on 5th of September 1944 under the charge of Prince Bernhard. They wore a blue uniform and a sleeve band like this.

During the war people aged 15 and up were obligated to have their identity card with them, it would contain their name, birth date and passport photo. Jews received a big ‘J’ stamped in their identity card. This was so Germans would be able to pick up certain groups of people, like Jews, easier.

It was common for good members of the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (N.S.B.) to have a money box, like this one, in their home. Regularly they would put some money into it for the party, the pot would also be put on the table during birthdays and weddings.

During the Second World War, a lot of use was made of the hand-held flour mills. Flour and bread were scare because of ‘coupons’. The mills were only allowed to mil a certain amount, if they would exceed that limit they would have to give it to the German occupiers. 

A can of tea with sugar and milk powder was a part of the daily ration of a British soldier during the Second World War. In 1942, the British government had bought up the entire available supply of tea in the world to uphold the morale of the troops. The story goes that Brian Horrocks, a commander of the 

British army, ordered to stop the tanks during the advance to the Rijnbrug near Arnhem to drink tea.

On 19 September 1944, a day after the liberation, the city was heavily bombed by the German army. Huge fires erupted and because of the water pressure not working the firefighters couldn’t do anything about it. 227 people were killed, 800 were injured, 225 houses were destroyed and 1100 were badly damaged. 

This bombshell was originated from a German bomb and was found in Petrus Donderstraat.

After the liberation, there was still a lot of hunger in the south of the Netherlands. The government didn’t ensure any food packages, because the liberation of the north had priority. At the end of 1944, a convoy of ships with food for the south of the Netherlands arrived in Antwerp. It could be that this can was a part of the convoy.

From 1949 there were 7 autorally events organized in memory of the liberation of Eindhoven. The route went from Eindhoven to Bayeux and back. From 1964 a new rally was organized annually from Eindhoven to Luik and back, this rally has grown to one of the largest motorsport events in the Netherlands.

This is a ‘knijpkat’, a flashlight that runs without batteries but with energy that is created by moving the lever up and down. The ‘knijpkat’ got this name because of the cat-like noises it makes while in use. The ‘knijpkat’ was produced from 1941 onwards because during the Second World War the streets would be blacked out and because of a lack of commodities there were hardly any batteries.

In this cigarette box from 1939/1940, there could fit up to 50 Amarillo cigars. On the lid, there is an image of a sailboat on waves and the text ‘Hou Zee’. These cigars are probably made for the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (N.S.B.); ‘Hou Zee’ was the party greeting they were very proud of.

The Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (N.S.B.) was a political party in the Netherlands that existed from 1931 until 1945 and worked together with the German occupiers during the Second World War. In 1942, mayor Verdijk was fired and succeeded by N.S.B. Pullers, but other government functions were also taken over by the N.S.B..

In this box were originally ‘after dinner mints’ that were produced in the United States. This box dates from the Second World War. Does anyone know if these boxes were a part of the rations of an American soldier? 

This is a memory tile from 1937 of a walking tour of hiking club W.S.V. De Musketiers. This hiking club, established in 1936, was connected to the N.S.B.. You received this tile if you had walked the tour without dropping out.

During the war, the air alarm went off regularly and everybody was required to stay indoors. This is a punishment out of 1943 for violating the air protection regulation. The penalty was a three guilder fine, in the case of non-payment, to be replaced by two days imprisonment. 

In this image, you see a replica of the Star of David. In 1941 the Jews were required to register themselves and from April 1942 they were obligated to wear a yellow star made out of cloth. They also had to purchase this so-called Jewish star, a maximum of 4 stars per person and required always visibly wear on their clothing.